Payments to Micro and Small Enterprises

Payments to Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs): Implications under Section 43B(h) of Income-tax Act, 1961

To encourage prompt payment of dues to micro and small enterprises (“MSEs”), the Government of India introduced clause (h) in Section 43B of the Income Tax Act, 1961 with effect from financial year 2023-24. As per clause (h) of Section 43B, if an assessee makes payment to MSE after the time specified under the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006, then deduction for such payment will be allowed in the year of actual payment. In this note we examine the stipulations outlined in Section 43B(h) of the IT Act and delve into its implications on the taxpayers.


Capital Gains and Beneficial Ownership Test

Indian Tax Treaties: Capital Gains and Beneficial Ownership Test

India’s double tax avoidance agreements (“DTAAs”) with certain countries (for e.g. Singapore, Mauritius and the Netherlands) provide that the capital gains on sale of shares is taxable only in the resident country of transferor and no tax is payable in India. However, the tax authorities have disputed the benefit available under the DTAAs by applying the “beneficial ownership” test. Further, they have also argued the sufficiency of tax residency certificate (“TRC”) to claim such benefit. In this note we analyze these aspects in light of the decision of Delhi High Court in Blackstone Capital Partners (Singapore) VI FDI Three Pte. Ltd., appeal against which has been recently admitted by the Supreme Court.


Capital Reduction

Capital Reduction: Tax Conundrums!

Capital Reduction, simply put, refers to the technique of reducing a company’s share capital in any form. It is a usually adopted mechanism by the companies for re-modelling their capital structure, amongst other means (viz., buy-back of shares and redemption of the preference share capital). Depending upon the objectives and attendant circumstances, a company can undertake capital reduction either with or without making any payment to its shareholders. This note discusses the tax implications that may arise in the hands of the company undertaking such capital reduction and its shareholders under different situations.


secondment

Secondment: An Endless Battle with the Tax Authorities!

Secondment of employees, as an approach, has become a common practice followed by multinationals to utilize their skilled resources with an ambition of geographical expansion. The tax implications at the time of re-imbursement of salary costs to secondees under a secondment arrangement has been a controversial issue which has led to protracted litigation between the tax authorities and the assessees. The courts have delivered plethora of judgements over the past many years depending upon the facts and circumstances of each case. This note discusses the principles emerged from various judicial precedents.


Reverse Flipping

Reverse Flipping: Is it Time to Return Home?

In the last few years, many Indian businesses “flipped” their shareholding structure by setting up a holding company in offshore jurisdictions. This was driven by several factors, including commercial, tax and regulatory considerations. However, this trend has reversed in recent times and the notion of “reverse-flipping” has picked up momentum. One objective of reverse flips has been to achieve a public listing in India. This note explores reverse flips and potential mechanisms to achieve them.


Cross-Border Merger Framework

Cross-Border Merger Framework in India: Limited Efficacy?

The facilitation of outbound mergers under the Companies Act and the FEMA Regulations has contributed towards expansion of the scope of cross-border mergers in India. However, as a practical matter, the framework for cross-border mergers in India has largely been utilized only in the context of merger of foreign wholly owned subsidiaries with and into their Indian holding companies or vice versa. This note discusses certain key issues leading to limited efficacy of the cross-border merger framework in India from a regulatory and tax perspective.